by Maurizio Vespa | Sep 25, 2020 | Health & Wellbeing
At some point in our lives, we all experience anxiety. Often this feeling of anxiety is not a prolonged experience that weighs people down. In many cases, it acts as an energy and emotion that can spur growth and bring about change. However, when the feeling of anxiety remains with us for an extended period then the emotional, physical and physiological impact can be unbearable.
In Australia today, approximately 1 in 5 young women and 1 in 10 young men between the ages of 16-25 are affected by anxiety. Parents and Guides website states that “almost 7 per cent of Australian children and adolescents have an anxiety disorder”. A person living with this mental health issue may struggle to articulate just how overwhelming their anxiety feels, and how it severely affects how they interact with others. It affects how they manage their study, work and social environment. Anxiety is a debilitating modern-day illness that weighs a person down and prevents them from being themselves and enjoying life to its fullest.
Recent studies from the UK published by BBC news states that in October 2019, 54% of 13 to 14-year-old girls and 26% of boys of the same age said they felt anxious. When surveyed in May 2020 – several weeks after schools shut to most pupils, and nationwide lockdown restrictions came into force – the proportion of young people who were experiencing anxiety dropped to 45% of girls and 18% of boys. The researchers had questioned 1,000 Year 9 students from 17 secondary schools across the south-west of England.
There are six key learnings I believe that we need to be aware of as educators when working with young people:
Schools need to ensure that their learning environment does not contribute or heighten a young person’s anxiety. Hence, school communities need to be mindful of the language and tonality used when working with students, parents and fellow colleagues. Students make choices on how they can feel safe and secure within their learning environment. Embracing Maslow’s hierarchical needs model, unless the basic needs are met, high order intervention strategies are less likely to be as effective.
Conversations that involve the use ‘of shaming language’ can further damage self-esteem and self-image. Plus, it may drain confidence and the human spirit. It does not contribute to a learning environment where students are encouraged to explore, take risks and control of their own learning.
Anxiety contributes to uncontrolled difficulty in thinking clearly because of an overload of negative thoughts. So an environment void of fear, retribution, judgment helps to reduce feelings of anxiousness.
- Wellbeing Management
When working with young people, one can anticipate that there will be times when they will make irrational choices and decisions, which impacts on their behaviour and others. So what is effective, is for schools to have a student wellbeing and management process that is not punitive based. It is a given that there are consequences for inappropriate and antisocial behaviour, however, there are interventions that are respectful, and allow young people to learn from their mistakes and adhere to procedural fairness processes.
- Transparent Processes
It is important that there is transparency and predictability with school processes, particularly in response to students when things do not go as planned. Reactive responses are not helpful for young people who experience anxiety. Therefore, the language of correction and engagement allows for respectful dialogue and the opportunity to be listened and heard without being pre-judged.
Anxiety can be connected to hurtful life experiences, such as bullying, or excessive pressure of work, study or social dynamics. So the last thing needed is to trigger and add to feelings of anxiety. Every negative thought that a person feels has an effect on their physiology and emotional wellbeing. It is quite common for a person with anxiety to feel on edge, incapable of attempting tasks, and facing new and unfamiliar situations. This fear of the unknown, and the overpowering feeling of being judged, makes anxiety a challenge to manage. As educators, we need to be mindful of how the ‘other’ feel.
- Understanding Behaviours
A person living with anxiety will even try to avoid all social interactions, which contributes to further isolation, nervousness and reduced wellbeing. These unpleasantries fuel and contribute to stronger feelings of danger and insecurity. Even if the danger may not be real, it makes a person feel vulnerable and exposed to potential ridicule, and judgment.
Anxiety reveals itself in many ways. It is not uncommon for some sufferers to want to do whatever is possible to please others, do whatever is possible to make things right. Some may become hypervigilant in their behaviour, always looking for safety and protection or keeping the mind busy with tasks and activities that they are confident and most comfortable completing. Others may isolate and avoid all contact, lock themselves in the bedroom, stay in bed and avoid all social contact.
- Supportive Action
If we have a loved one or a person that we know who is affected by prolonged feelings of anxiety. It is soothing to reassure them that they are safe, secure and they have your support. Dismissing how they feel does not help, however, listening to how they feel and asking them, what they need from you or others, is far more effective. Seeking the professional support of a counsellor or psychologist is ideal, and having a choice is likely to deliver better outcomes and contribute to a positive experience. In addition, it may be beneficial to explore the introduction of a healthier diet with the assistance of a dietician or family doctor, and alongside the exploration of activities that are creative and expressive such as art, music, writing/journaling, dance and meditation.
It is essential to remember that feelings of anxiety can make a person feel alone, so engaging in activities and being constant support helps reduce feelings of anxiousness. The encouragement and understanding of loved ones are invaluable and highly therapeutic. So being present, without judging, creates positive endorphins and a feeling of love, nurture, care, and understanding, which contribute to more uplifting and affirmative thoughts.
With the world experiencing the effects of the pandemic, feelings of anxiety are likely to be more widespread in adults and young people. As research shows us, we need to be open to building new ways to connect and support those experiencing all kinds of mental health difficulties. That is why I am passionate about Restorative education because it enables all of the points above to be implemented.
by Maurizio Vespa | Nov 22, 2018 | Health & Wellbeing
I am sure we have all read and heard about a child’s FIGHT, FLIGHT and FREEZE responses. However, we do not hear as much being discussed about how we continue to experience these behaviours into our adult years.
In the late 1960’s, Dr Silvan Tomkins shared his “Affect Theory” research with the world. For those who may not be aware, we all poses an “Affect System” that gets triggered when the spotlight is placed on us, so allow me to briefly share an insight into what is our “Affect System”, and the connection with Fight, Flight and Freeze modalities.
The “Affect System” is triggered when a person is stimulated by something that is received via the senses. The stimulus can be positive, negative or a neutral one. However, once our affect system is aroused, we may respond positively, which may give rise to pleasure or fun, in a negative way, which may stir up shame or anger and in a neutral way, which may show itself in the form of a shock or a startle. The shock and startle response, is a brief pause in time where it is hard to think or make sense of things. It lasts a few seconds generally until cognition is regained.
The “Affect System” when triggered creates a physiological change in the human body, such as a smile, rolling of the eyes, blushing etc. This is also accompanied by a feeling and when the two interact, we feel an emotion, like anger, fear, joy, excitement or just uncertainty.
This “Affect System” is interconnected to our FIGHT, FLIGHT, and FREEZE behaviour.
When a child is placed in the spotlight for having done something wrong, their “affect system” gets triggered. They will feel uncomfortable, and yet smile, or turn their heads, eyes and look away etc. (their physiological response). However, the adult will usually respond by saying ” look at me” or “you need to take this seriously, so stop smiling”.
If the child feels that their relationship with the adult is not a safe and positive one, the child may engage in a “Power Battle” with the adult. That is, the child will argue, deny, or participate in a blame game. This is the “FIGHT” response of the child.
The adult can also goes into FIGHT mode, especially when they believe they are losing control and power, so to regain the upper hand, the adult usually reverts to their “safety mode” and takes up a position of “Power Over”, by raising their voice, or implementing a punitive intervention. However, it is quite common for adults before they go into Fight mode to experience the FREEZE!!!!
The Freeze response may not be as obvious to some but it happens when the adult is confronted with a situation that requires management, and for a moment are uncertain how to deal with it. There is often some internal thinking that takes place for them. Used wisely, it can be of benefit to all but when rushed, it can have damaging outcomes. For instance, if a child says something rude and offensive to the adult, the adult is shocked, “FREEZES”, gets angry and the emotional energy surges quickly, so that the response is a statement that is intimidating, and aggressive. It may even contain judgemental, and stigmatising language. Then it is followed by a punitive action because it helps the adult feel as though they have regained the Power status back to the “FIGHT” response.
The “Freeze” response can be useful to the adult, when managed effectively. If the adult is uncertain about what to do, take that moment to reflect, a statement can be delivered with honesty and dignity that addresses the affect of the comment on the person. Then redirect the child onto something else and find the time later to address it properly. Once the adult has had the time to think about what needs to happen and reflects calmly on a way of managing the situation with the child being allowed to do the same, the prospect of coming up with a more positive outcome is enhanced.
For the child, the FREEZE response will take the form of silence or denial and reluctance to engage. This will often enrage and frustrate the adult. Again, take the time to be “with” and “in the silence” and to think of a statement that will disapprove of what has happened or the behaviour and move on to something else, so that the and space time can be used to reflect and address the situation with clarity.
The “FLIGHT” mode for a child can be instantaneous, especially if the child is fearful of what is going to happen to them. They will often run when they feel guilty and when they know that they have done something hurtful. The child may run when they do not have a great relationship with the adult. The feeling of not being safe or in a safe place with the adult can trigger “FLIGHT” responses from children. So, the first thing is not to run after them, let them settle and calm down, then find the best time to interact with them. Again, use language that is respectful, and a tone that feels safe, calming and yet assertive. For the adult the “FLIGHT” response can be to pass the problem onto someone else, which tends to happen in schools and in the home. In the home, one parent passes the problem onto the other. Neither of these behaviours are helpful because it disempowers one and makes the other responsible. The same applies in schools when one teacher refers the problem onto another. Sadly, that person experiences ,the damed if they do, and damed if they don’t reactions.
While, FLIGHT, FIGHT and FREEZE modalities are a natural part of human behaviour, being aware of these in our actions and responses can help us to manage situations more effectively when we see it being played out in children or other adults.
by Maurizio Vespa | Feb 25, 2018 | Health & Wellbeing
Teenage Mental Health: Build a Strong Flexible Supportive Bridge
In the past 16 years, I have spent time working with teenagers with trauma and mental health issues. In working with these fabulous young people, they taught me a great deal about emotional pain, vulnerability and importance of listening, supporting and not given up on them.
In Australia, approximately one in six teenagers have some form of mental health or trauma related issue. In a classroom of thirty students, it means, that there are seven kids who are affected and of maybe two or three may seek help from a school counsellor of significant adult. The other students are either too afraid or embarrassed to talk or share with anyone and may not feel as though they have a significant adult or person they can relate too and trust. They fear being singled out, ridiculed and ultimately bullied by others.
As a result these kids often become behavioural concerns and get labelled as defiant, the trouble maker or “the school refuser”. Families then become embroiled in the battle with School, Education systems’, and the Courts, all with the best intentions but often with an authoritarian approach to managing the situation. All of this adding to the traumatic experience for the child, which impacts on their relationship once again with their family. The crisis circle is spinning around and around.
Having worked with these teenagers, they all express a genuine willingness to want to change their circumstances but struggle to get that kick-start. What they taught me was that if you empower them to make decisions and listen without judgement, then it is amazing what they are capable of accomplishing. Often these teenagers struggle to connect with adults and they feel unsafe and constantly under threat. This threat comes from the emotional feelings they pick up from others around them. People who just do not understand what they are experiencing and who make them feel different. They get told “to get a grip on things” or to “build a bridge and get over it” and it is far from being that simple.
From my experience what is helpful, is to ask them “what do they want to do”, and to listen and encourage them to problem solve with our help. To develop a plan with two or three practical strategies that is easy for them to enforce so that they see success and growth in what they are doing. When any adult is working with child who has experienced trauma, it is critical to acknowledge that the change process will take time. It requires supportive adults who are prepared to journey with these kids. Adults who have the endurance to be patient, positive, energised and do not give up when there is a setback.
Any child who has had a traumatic experience cannot manage the change on their own, and it is unrealistic to expect them to bring about change without assistance. By providing adult support, wisdom and positivity is so valuable and when there are setbacks, focus on what they have achieved no matter how small. Then problem solve what more can we do together to get to the next step. Progress is never smooth or linear there will be moments when it’s two steps forward and one step or more backwards. The key is to reflect on on the backward steps and highlight what has been achieved, what has been learnt, and to use what was learnt for the next two steps forward.
The research evidence into mental health states that the brain is capable of repair and healing and that it is possible for the brain to develop new neuron pathways, and therefore create the opportunity to learn, adapt and change. If a safe and secure environment surrounds the child and the adults who work with them believe in them, while the memories of events will remain, the pain will diminish.
I also found that the language, I used with these kids makes a huge difference in how they engage with you. There has to be dialogue and a tonality that is soft, calming, and non-threatening. Avoid emotive language, as well as blameful or judgemental statements because it alienates and further disconnects the child.
To force a child into compliance and work with what the adult’s plan can be a lost cause. This does not work well at, all plans with these children must involve them, and it needs to be kept simple, practical, and realistic. They must be able to achieve some level of success from the plan and what adds the icing to this, is acknowledgment they receive from the adults.